The only original extant notice we have of the Argippaei is in Herodotus (4.23-24):
1. neighbors to the Apostate Scythians 2. lived in the foothills of high mountains 3. both males and females were bald from birth 4. located east of the Apostate Scythians 5. have snubbed noses and long beards 6. had their own language 7. wore Scythian clothing 8. food of fig-like form came from trees 9. have few cattle and pasture land 10. live under trees 11. at peace with their neighbors 12. considered a sacred people 13. didn't bare weapons 14. judge the quarrels of their neighbors. 15. trade with the Scythians in seven languages. 16. live beside lofty mountains 17. neighbors of the Issedones.
From the scant geographical descriptions, some have placed them at the western base of the Altai Mts. Tadeusz Sulimirski identified them as the possesors of the Bolsherechemskaya Culture which came from the Karasuk Culture.
Sulimirski postulates a Karasuk origin of the culture of the Argippaei. The origins of the Karasuk Culture itself, is not agreed upon, only that it appears to have been one of the earliest possessors of the "animal-style art" so prevelant in the belt of cultures encompassing the Scythians, Saka, and Siberian tribes. Some see enough of an identification of the Karasuk Culture with the "animal-style art" that they postulate that it may have been the origin of that art-form. These scholars trace the origin of the Karasuk Culture to "Ordos desert cattlebreeders". This of itself does not answer the question, given that we don't know who inhabited the Ordos region about 1500 BC. The possibility could be from Altaics to Tocharians, and even to Yeniseians, since the region of Karasuk possession bear place-names of Yeniseian linguistic origin.
What does the name Argippae mean? From which language is it?
I'm taking a stab in the dark here, but I would guess by its greek sound that Argippae is either a term given to these people by greeks to distinguish them from other Saka, or, what the Greeks thought their native name sounded like - A Hellenisation. For example
"It is now generally accepted that the royal name Kambujiya (or Kamboujiya) of ancient Persian records is reflected in the Sanskrit Kamboja or Greek Cambyses."
A fairly basic response but I thought I'd take a shot at addressing it seeing as nobody else seems ot have yet.